Cuba and United States Association
Cuba and United States Association
The unrestricted relationship between the United States and Cuba has roots back in the Cold War. Fidel Castrol and other revolutionaries seized authority in Havan back in 1959 by overthrowing Fulgencio Batista. Although the United state doubted the Castro’s communist political philosophy, it accepted his administration (Gronbeck-Tedesco 11). Nevertheless, Castro’s government elevated commerce with the Soviet Union, increased taxes on the US imports and public sectors owned by Americans which made the United stated to react by intensified economic retaliation. Moreover, US slashed imports of Cuban sugar and banned all exports to Cuba as well as extending complete economic embargo including the harsh travel restrictions (Gronbeck-Tedesco 17).
However, the diplomatic associations between the United States and Cuba were restored in 2015. Cuba handled the American embassy in Havana while Cuban embassy in the United States was restored. Nevertheless, America still maintains its economic, commercial and financial embargo thus making it unlawful for the American businesses to operate in Cuba (Gronbeck-Tedesco 21). The foreign American foreign policy towards Cuba has been termed as obsessive compulsive disorder hence the United States should stop the habit of power regarding Cuba. There have been various incidences within the American foreign policy towards Cuba that took place in the course of the revolution. The paper focuses on the Platt Amendment and its effects on revolution as one of the incidents that took place as the United States policy towards Cuba.
The Platt Amendment was passed back in 1901 as a portion of 1901 Army Appropriations Bill. The bill indicated seven conditions for the withdrawal American troops left in Cuba at the termination of American-Spanish battle while the eighth stipulates that Cuban government signed the treaty accepting the rest conditions (Chomsky 147). Moreover, the amendment outlined the duties of the United States in Caribbean and Cuba. Furthermore, the Platt Amendment limited Cuba the right to establish treaties with other countries. Likewise, the Cuban government was restricted to conduct commercial relations and foreign policy as well as establishing the Cuba’s boundaries in the Isle of Pines. Besides, the amendment illustrated that Cuba should lease of sell lands to the American necessary for the development of marine stations or coaling.
According to the Platt amendment, the Cuban republic did not resolve either the issue of countrywide independence or that of racial fairness. However, the political independence of the American authority was enshrined in the amendment which was passed by both the houses of American Congress as well as signed by the president (Chomsky, Carr, and Smorkaloff 97). Likewise, the political system established by the Cuban elites and American occupiers ensured that the social inequalities were retained. Also, the amendment was initiated for the accomplishment of the declaration controlled in the mutual resolution approved on 20th April 1898. The resolution required Spanish authority to relinquish its government and power in Cuba for the acknowledgment of citizens of Cuba independence (Chomsky, Carr, and Smorkaloff 148). Additionally, Spain had to withdraw its naval and land reserve troops from Cuban water and land. Moreover, the mutual resolution directed the United States president to utilize the naval forces and land to carry out the declaration into effects.
The American president approved to leave the control and government of Cuba to its natives as soon as the Cuban authority had established the constitution. After the creation of Cuban government and constitution, the Platt Amendment stipulated seven conditions of future association between the American and Cuban government. The first condition stated that the Cuban authority should never get into any compact or treaty with other overseas power or powers since it would damage or tend to destroy the sovereignty of Cuba (Chomsky 149). Moreover, the condition demanded that Cuban government should not permit or authorize any distant powers to get by military, naval rationale, colonization or otherwise control or lodgment over any part of the island.
Secondly, the amendment required the Cuban government not to contract or assumes any public debt to disburse the interest. The government had to establish reasonable sinking finance stipulation for the eventual discharge of which the usual revenues of the land after paying the current expenses of the administration shall be inadequate (Chomsky, Carr, and Smorkaloff 101). Furthermore, the third condition required the government of Cuba to agree that the US government might implement the right to interfere for the conservation of Cuban independence. Also, the American government could intervene to maintain the state adequacy in protecting lives, individual liberty, and property. The fourth clause stated that all American acts in Cuba at the time of military occupancy should be validated and ratified while all legal rights acquired should be protected and maintained.
The fifth condition required the Cuban government to execute mutually agreed plans for the sanitation of towns in the island to stop the recurrence of infectious diseases and epidemic that could be averted. The prevention of diseases and epidemic was an assurance of health protection to the Cuban citizens and commerce as well as the business of the southern ports of America and individuals residing in that region (Chomsky 149). On the other hand, the sixth clause omitted the Isle of Pines from the projected legitimate borders of Cuba which would be left for future amendment by agreement. The seventh condition demanded the Cuban government to sell land to the American government for the purpose of maintaining Cuban independence and people protection as well as for its security (Chomsky, Carr, and Smorkaloff 127). The united forces were supposed to get land at a particular point in the island as agreed upon by with the American president.
Effects of Cuban Revolution
The Platt Amendment had major impacts on the revolution of the Cuban government. Initially, the Spanish authorities were removed from the Cuban soil and waters since the Platt Amendment was made to accomplish the declaration of the joint resolution. The American government had the control of Cuba which ensured that Cuban citizens were protected as well as their properties and commerce (Chomsky 148). Moreover, the Cuban government was established, and a new constitution was created. Likewise, civil rights that include the right to vote were expanded t the adult, literate, and male Cubans which did not exist during the Spanish invasion (Chomsky 150). Moreover, the American government endorsed a tariff that offered the Cuban sugar preference in the American market and the security to select United States products in the Cuban trade.
However, the amendment restricted the Cuban government to establish foreign associations with other nations in the name of securing their sovereignty and protection of the people. The restrictions prevented the economic growth since it was not able to invest in other countries. The Cuban economy was dependent on the American markets thus limiting its growth and selling of sugar to other nations (Chomsky, Carr, and Smorkaloff 141). Moreover, the Isle Pines boundaries were not counted as part of the Cuban government land hence creating a chance for the American government to exploit the resources within the region. Moreover, the American occupation in Cuba remodeled the Cuban community making it a new island safe for investment and commerce.
The relation between the planning of agendas for scientific studies and vital need to reinsert Cuba into the cycle of international migration, trade and investment formed the background of medical research on the spread of yellow fever (Chomsky 151). The American government emphasized on sanitation around the Cuban’s cities to protect citizens from communicable infections and diseases. The Cubans viewed the amendment as the priority that led to independence after a long period of war. Moreover, the Cuba was able to have Tomas Estrada Palma as their first president under the Platt Amendment after which the government became stable and started to recognize how the amendment was restricting the Cuban independent. Later the treaty was denounced in 1934, and the Cuban government was able to operate without the limitations from the American acts.
The American government played a major role in protecting the people of Cuba, properties, and civil rights. Moreover, the island of Cuba was able to attain the independence from the Spanish government since the Platt Amendment required the Spanish troops to withdrawal from the Cuban soil and waters. Furthermore, Cuban residents were protected from infectious diseases since the American government emphasized on sanitation within the cities. However, the Cuban government rejected the treaty since they understood that it restricted them from exercising their independence rights. The American government should let go the habit of authority concerning Cuba since the Cuba is a republic and need to perform without limitations. Moreover, the United States should respect that they helped Cuba to attain independence hence continuing with the habit of power means that Cuba did not achieve its independence.